Birth Control

OB-GYN & Family Planning

Birth Control ( OB-GYN & Family Planning ) 

Unplanned pregnancy is a major crisis that can have grave consequences on women and their families. Preventing unintended pregnancy is an important aspect of a woman’s health and well-being which requires all members of the family, doctors, and community to be involved in the task. 

Unintended pregnancy is an unplanned, undesired, or mistimed pregnancy. It is often a consequence of a lack of access to information about effective birth control methods.

It’s critical to be aware of all possible choices for childbirth prevention before selecting the one that best suits a couple. The numerous choices are as follows:

  • IUD techniques
  • Hormonal
  • Barrier
  • Methods based on information
  • Permanent sterilisation

Barrier methods include :

1. Male condoms

When used properly & regularly, they are > 98 percent effective.

Do’s and Don’ts: 

– DO store condoms in a dry, cold environment.

– Before any sexual contact, DO place the condom on an erect (hard) penis.

– DO use a new one for each act of love.

– DO pull out (withdraw) after sex while holding the condom at the base of the penis.

– Discard the condom once it has been used.

– Use silicone- or water-based lubricants during vaginal intercourse (anal sex)

– Don’t use expired condoms.

– Do not use oils or petroleum-based products (such as Vaseline) with latex.

– Don’t reuse condoms.

– Don’t share a condom during sexual intercourse.

– Don’t use it for vaginal irritation or infections like yeast infections. 

2. Female condoms 

When used properly & continuously, they are > 97 percent effective. 

Do’s and Don’ts:

– Worn within the uterus or anus

– Thicker and more tearing-proof

– Always free of latex

– A wider aperture covers more of the pelvis.

– Use a new one each time.

– Store the female condom in a dry, cold environment.

– DO always check the expiration date before using any contraceptive method to prevent unintended pregnancy. 

3. Diaphragm 

This method is 82-88% effective when used correctly and consistently and where the woman’s health caregiver is properly trained. 

– These methods are not contraceptives. They are used to prevent an unplanned pregnancy.

– It is a non-hormonal sponge device used during intercourse to block sperm from entering the uterus.

4. Cervical Cap 

– Before sexual contact, a latex barrier is placed in the vagina.

– Suction-bound “caps” the cervix

– Six hours after sexual contact, fill with spermicidal jelly and leave in situ. It can be left in the body for a total of 48 hours.

– Ideal efficacy rate – 91%

– Typical efficacy rate – 80%

5. Spermicides

– Chemicals that kill sperm.

– Used with a barrier or alone.

– Available in foams, jellies, and gels.

– Use before every act of intercourse.

– Use for no more than 48 hours, and then discard the container.

6. Birth Control Patch, Pill, and Ring 

A combination birth control method that uses the hormones oestrogen and progestin to prevent pregnancy by preventing ovulation (release of an egg from the ovary). These pills don’t prevent STDs. 

Positive Benefits of using Pills :

  • Helps in weight loss
  • Decreases acne
  • Improves your skin complexion and texture
  • Decreases menstrual cramps and pain. 

Negative Effects of using Pills : 

  • Breast tenderness
  • Headaches / Dizziness
  • Nausea
  • Painful menstruation 

7. Birth Control Implant 

A thin rod, about the size of a matchstick, is placed under the skin of your upper arm by a healthcare professional. The rod contains hormones that prevent ovulation and pregnancy for up to 3 years.

Types: Implanon, Nexplanon

8. Intrauterine Device (IUD) 

IUD is a small T-shaped device that releases copper ions or progesterone directly inside the uterus. copper acts as a spermicide, and progesterone prevents the implantation of a fertilised egg 

9. Intrauterine system (IUS)

A T-shaped plastic device that contains a progestin hormone. It is placed in your uterus by a healthcare provider. You can have it removed any time you want to become pregnant or stop using it. 

10. Abstinence 

– Only a 100% effective way of contraception

– Abstinence is the lack of sexual activity between couples.

– For abstinence practitioners to succeed, communication between partners is crucial.


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