Polycystic Ovary Syndrome(PCOS) Treatment
Specialized Treatment by Dr Shruti Kainth (Obs & Gyne) in Zirakpur
What is Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)?
PCOS is a hormonal disorder in which many small ovaries produce excessive androgen. This hormone stimulates the production of male hormones, leading to acne and hair growth on the chin.
Nowadays, the prevalence of PCOS or PCOD among young women has reached epidemic levels. It is present in 5-10% of women of reproductive age, although, in some populations, such as Indian women, it stands at 41%.
Additionally, it may increase the risk of developing type II diabetes, high blood pressure, endometrial hyperplasia, and cholesterol later in life.
What are the Symptoms?
- Less bleeding and delayed irregular cycles (6–8 years).
- Acne, the development of male pattern hair (on the upper lip, chin, neck, sideburns, chest, upper or lower belly, upper arm, and inner thigh), and other skin conditions adding pounds (50 % )
- Type II Diabetes (10%) High BP and cholesterol, Heart disease
- Obstructive sleep apnoea(50%)
- Anxiety, depression, and eating disorders (30%)
- Endometriosis (10%)
It may lead to problems related to pregnancy like :
- Having trouble ovulating—30% PCOS
- Pregnancy diabetes
- Large for age baby with preterm birth
How to Diagnose?
PCOS is a group of symptoms that can be identified if two of these criteria are present.
- The presence of anovulation (no ovulation)
- The presence of high concentrations of male hormones in the blood may cause acne, hirsutism (excessive body hair), and unwanted hair growth.
- Polycystic ovaries are found through pelvic ultrasound.
What are the Treatment options?
PCOD can be cured with proper medication and lifestyle changes.
- Lifestyle modification
- Intake of low carbohydrate diet
Weight loss of between 5 and 10 % with exercise:
- Teenagers should exercise for 60 minutes per day at a moderate to strenuous intensity, strengthening their muscles and bones at least three times per week to avoid weight gain and limiting their time spent sitting or staring at screens.
- Adults ages 65 and older should engage in at least an hour of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week. This can be done through walking, jogging, swimming, or other aerobic activities.
- The optimal number of steps per day is 10,000, which should include routine daily activities and 30 minutes of structured exercise, or about 3000 steps.
- 10-minute bouts of gradually increasing physical exercise are just one example of a SMART objective (Specific, Measureable, Achievable, Relevant, Time-limited) weekly 5 percent
- Limit or avoid using oral contraceptives (OCs) to lower the conversion of androgens into estrogen.
- Taking a variety of low androgenic foods may help to reduce symptoms.
Emphasize whole plant-based foods :
- Having Complex carbohydrates
- Contain a wealth of nutrients
- leave you feeling full and content
Simple carbohydrates :
- Supplying transient energy
- Mainly comprises empty calories.
- leave you wanting more
Eat the right type of protein :
- Chicken & fish
- Milk & milk Products
- Soybean & Legumes
- Mix Dals
When lifestyle modifications are ineffective, medication may be required to alleviate the symptoms, such as
- Insulin sensitisers like metformin
- Myo Inositol
- Selective estrogen receptor modulators like spironolactone
- Birth control pills
- Corticosteroids (additive effects with insulin)
- Hormonal replacement therapy
Depending on the issues a person is dealing with, the dosage, course, and combination of medications will vary. To become less reliant on medicine, it is advised to keep making lifestyle adjustments. Surgery is rarely required to treat PCOS. Laparoscopic ovarian drilling may be recommended in some extremely difficult PCOS infertility cases. However, it is debatable. A doctor should assess the patient to see if she is normal weight or obese and to determine if she has a history of depression.